Robert Carlson, Ph.D.

 

Robert G. Carlson, Ph.D.

Director, Center for Interventions, Treatment and Addictions Research
Professor, Department of Community Health

110 Medical Sciences Bldg.
3640 Colonel Glenn Hwy.
Dayton, OH 45435
Phone: (937) 775-2066
Fax: (937) 775-2214
E-mail: robert.carlson@wright.edu


Education

Ph.D.: University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Anthropology (1989)
Thesis: "Haya Worldview and Ethos: An Ethnography of Alcohol Production and Consumption in Bukoba, Tanzania." (Described in Volume 50, No. 7 of Dissertation Abstracts International)

M.A.: University of Missouri, Columbia, Anthropology (1982)

B.A.: University of Missouri, Columbia, Anthropology and Philosophy (1977)


Research and Interests

Cultural Anthropology: Medical Anthropology; AIDS and the HIV Disease; Psychoactive Drug Use; Ethnography and Field Research Methods; Applied Anthropology; Contemporary Theory in Cultural Anthropology; Cognitive and Symbolic Anthropology; Political Economy of Health and Illness.

Area Specializations: Urban U.S. (Midwest), African Americans, Sub-Saharan Africa (particularly indigenous peoples of East Africa).

Languages: Kiswahili.


Professional Memberships

American Anthropological Association (1977)
Society for Medical Anthropology
AIDS and Anthropology Research Group
Alcohol and Drug Study Group
Society for Applied Anthropology (Fellow)
College on Problems of Drug Dependence (December 2004)


Selected Publications

 

In press

Borders, T.F., Stewart, K.E., Wright, P.B., Leukefeld, C., Falck, R.S., Carlson, R.G., Booth, B.M. Risky Sex in Rural America: Longitudnal Changes in a community-based cohort of methamphetamine and cocaine users. American Journal on Addictions.

In press

Oser, Carrie, Carl Leukefeld, Michele Staton-Tindall, Jamieson Duvall, Thomas Garrity, William Stoops, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, Robert Carlson, Rocky Sexton, Patricia Wright, and Brenda Booth. Criminality among Rural Stimulant Users in the United States. Crime and Delinquency.

2013

Carlson, Robert G., Ramzi Nahhas, Raminta Daniulaityte, Silvia S. Martins, Linna Li, Russel Falck. Latent class analysis of non-opioid dependent illegal pharmaceutical opioid users in Ohio. Drug and Alcohol Depend.2014 Jan 1;134:259-66. PMID: 24210772

2012

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Russel Falck and Robert G. Carlson. “I’m not afraid of those ones just 'cause they’ve been prescribed”: Perceptions of risk among illicit users of pharmaceutical opioids. International Journal of Drug Policy 23:374-384.

2012

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Russel Falck, and Robert G. Carlson. Illicit Use of Buprenorphine in a Community Sample of Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 122(3):201-207.

2012

Falck, Russel, Ramzi Nahhas, Linna Li, and Robert G. Carlson. “Surveying Teens in School to Assess the Prevalence of Problematic Drug Use. Journal of School Health 82(5):217-224.

2012

Daniulatyte, Raminta, Russel Falck, Linna Li, Ramzi Nahhas, and Robert G. Carlson. Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit Young Adult Non-Medical Users of Pharmaceutical Opioids: Problems and Solutions. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 121(1-2): 23-29.

2012

Kramer, Terry L., Tyrone F. Borders, Shanti Tripathi, Christian Lynch, Carl Leukefeld, Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, & Brenda M. Booth. Physical Victimization of Rural Methamphetamine and Cocaine Users. Violence and Victims 27(1):109-124.

2011

Carlson, Robert G., Rocky Sexton, Lawrence Hammar, and Tamara Hansen Reese. Driving Themselves to Drink: Qualitative Perspectives from “Hardcore” DUI Repeat Offenders. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 10(4):363-379. (published 2012)

2011

Martins, Silvia S., Alexandre, P.K., Falck, R.S., and Carlson, R.G. Perceived risk associated with Ecstasy use: a latent class analysis approach. Addictive Behaviors 36(5): 551-4.

2011

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth, Ph.D. Predictors of Depressive Symptomatology Among Rural Stimulant Users. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 42(4): 435-445.

2011

Daniulaityte, Raminta and Robert G Carlson. “To Numb Out and Start to Feel Nothing”: Experiences of Stress among Crack Using Women in a Midwestern City. Journal of Drug Issues 41(1):1-24.

2011

Oser, Carrie B., Carl G. Leukefeld, Michele Staton Tindall, Thomas F. Garrity, Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Brenda M. Booth. Rural Drug Users: Factors Associated with Substance Abuse Treatment Utilization. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology 55(4): 567-586.

2010

Sexton, Rocky L., Robert G. Carlson, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. “Tweaking and Geeking, Just Having Some Fun”: An Analysis of Methamphetamine Poems. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 42:377-383.

2010

Carlson, Robert G., Rocky Sexton, Jichuan Wang, Russel Falck, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. Predictors of Substance Abuse Treatment Entry Among Rural Illicit Stimulant Users in Ohio, Arkansas, and Kentucky. Substance Abuse 31:1-7. PMCID: PMC2856131

2010

Booth, Brenda M., Geoffrey Curran, Xiaotong Han, Patricia Wright, Sarah Frith, Carl Leukefeld, Russel Falck, and Robert G. Carlson. Longitudinal Relationship Between Psychological Distress and Multiple Substance Use: Results from a Three-Year Multisite Natural History Study of Rural Stimulant Users. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Other Drugs 71:258-267. PMCID: PMC2841737 [Available on 2011/3/1]

2009

Borders, Tyrone F., Brenda M. Booth, Russel S. Falck, Carl Leukefeld, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Longitudinal Changes in Drug Use Severity and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life among Untreated Stimulant Users. Addictive Behaviors 34(11):959-64. PMCID: PMC2726274

2009

Wang, Jichuan, Brian C. Kelly, Brenda M. Booth, Russel Falck, Carl Leukefeld, and Robert G, Carlson. Examining Factorial Structure and Measurement Invariance of the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI)-18 among Drug Users. Addictive Behaviors 35(1): 23-29.

2009

Carlson, Robert G., Merril Singer, Richard C. Stephens, and Claire Sterk. Reflections on 40 Years of Ethnographic Drug Abuse Research: Implications for the Future. Journal of Drug Issues 39(1):57-70.

2009

Sexton, Rocky L., Robert G. Carlson, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. An Ethnographic Exploration of Self-Reported Violence among Rural Methamphetamine Users. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 8:35-53.

2009

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, & Robert G. Carlson. Illicit Use of Pharmaceutical Opioids among Young Polydrug Users in Ohio. Addictive Behaviors, 34, 649-653. PMCID: PMC2692760

2009

Draus, Paul, and Robert G. Carlson. “The Game Turns on You”: Crack, Sex, Gender and Power in Small Town Ohio. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 38(3):384-408.

2009

Draus, Paul and Robert G. Carlson. Down on Main Street: Drugs and the Small-Town Vortex. Health and Place 15(1):247-254. PMCID: PMC2630520. Republished in: Mapping and the Social Landscape: Readings in Sociology, 6th Edition. 2010. Susan Ferguson, Ed.

2009

Havens, Jennifer R., William W. Stoops, Carl G. Leukefeld, Thomas Garrity, Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Brenda M. Booth. Prescription Opiate Misuse among Rural Stimulant Users in a Multistate Community-Based Study. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 35:18-23.

2008

Sexton, Rocky, Robert G. Carlson, Carl Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. “Methamphetamine Producers and Users’ Reactions to Pseudoephedrine Legislation in the Rural South.” Journal of Crime and Justice 31(2):117-137.

2008

Sexton, Rocky, Robert G. Carlson, Carl Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. “Trajectories of Methamphetamine Use in the Rural South: A longitudinal Qualitative Study.” Human Organization 67(2):18-1-193.

2008

Carr, Carey A., Jiangmin Xu, Cristina Redko, D. Timothy Lane, Richard C. Rapp, John Goris, and Robert G. Carlson. Individual and System Influences on Waiting for Substance Abuse Treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 34:192-201. PMCID: PMC2268628

2008

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Depressive Symptomatology in Young Adults with a History of MDMA Use: A Longitudinal Analysis. Journal of Psychopharmacology 23:47-54.

2008

Falck, Russel, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Among Long-Term Crack Users, Who Avoids and Who Succumbs to Addiction? Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 98(1-2): 24-29. PMCID: PMC2564618

2008

Borders, Tyrone F., Brenda M. Booth, Xiaotong Han, Patricia Wright, Carl Leukefeld, Russel S. Falck, and Robert G. Carlson. Longitudinal Changes in Methamphetamine and Cocaine Use in Untreated Rural Stimulant Users: Racial Differences and the Impact of Methamphetamine Legislation. Addiction 103(5):800-808.

2008

Rapp, Richard. C., J. Xu, Carrie Carr, Timothy Lane, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Development of a Motivation Assessment in a Pre-Treatment Population of Substance Abusers. Substance Abuse, 29(4), 39-50.

2008

Rapp, Richard C., Amy L. Otto, Timothy Lane, Cristina Redko, Sue McGatha, and Robert. G. Carlson. Improving Linkage with Substance Abuse Treatment: Using Brief Case Management and Motivational Interviewing. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 94(172-182. PMCID: PMC2289777

2008

Xu, Jiangmin Jichuan Wang, Richard C. Rapp, and Robert G. Carlson. The Multidimensional Structure of External Barriers to Substance Abuse Treatment and Its Invariance across Gender, Ethnicity, and Age. Substance Abuse 29(1):43-54.

2008

Sexton, Rocky, Robert G. Carlson, Carl Leukefeld, & Brenda Booth. Barriers to Formal Drug Abuse Treatment in the Rural South: A Preliminary Ethnographic Assessment.” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 40(2):121-130.

2007

Redko, Christina, Richard C. Rapp, Cindy Elms, Mindy Snyder, and Robert G. Carlson. Understanding the Working Alliance Between Persons with Substance Abuse Problems and Strength-Based Case Managers. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 39(3):241-250.

2007

Draus, Paul, and Robert G. Carlson. Changes in Scenery: An Ethnographic Exploration of Crack Cocaine Use in Rural Ohio. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, Vol 6(1):81-107.

2007

Redko, Cristina, Robert G. Carlson, and Richard C. Rapp. A Folk Model of Treatment Readiness among Drug Users in Ohio. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, Vol 6 No 2:15-40.

2007

Garrity, Thomas F., Carl G. Leukefeld, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Brenda M. Booth, Ph.D. Physical Health, Illicit Drug Use, and Demographic Characteristics in Rural Stimulant Users. Journal of Rural Health, Vol 23 No 2:99-107.

2007

Patricia B. Wright, Katharine E. Stewart, Ellen P. Fischer, Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. HIV-Risk Behaviors among Rural Stimulant Users: Variation by Gender and Race/Ethnicity. AIDS Education and Prevention, 19(2):137-150.

2007

Rapp, Richard C., Jiangmin Xu, Carey A. Carr, D. Timothy Lane, Christina Redko, Jichuan Wang, & Robert G. Carlson. Understanding Treatment Readiness in Recently Assessed, Pre-treatment Substance Abusers. Substance Abuse Vol 28(1):11-23.

2007

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Robert G. Carlson, and Harvey A. Siegal. "Heavy Users," "Controlled Users," and "Quitters": Understanding Patterns of Crack Use among Women in a Midwestern City. Substance Use and Misuse 42:129-152.

2007

Wang, Jichuan, Russel Falck, Linna Li, Ahmmed Rahman, and Robert G. Carlson. Respondent-Driven Sampling in the Recruitment of Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in a Rural Setting: Findings and Technical Issues. Addictive Behaviors 32:924-937.

2006

Sexton, Rocky L., Robert G. Carlson, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. Methamphetamine Use and Adverse Consequences in the Rural Southern United States: An Ethnographic Overview. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, SARC Supplement 3:393-404.

2006

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, & Harvey A. Siegal. Prevalence and Correlates of Current Depressive Symptomatology among a Community Sample of MDMA Users in Ohio. Addictive Behaviors 31:90-101.

In Press

Carlson, Robert G., Harvey A. Siegal, Jichuan Wang, and Russel S. Falck. Ethnography and Targeted Sampling: Insights From a Natural History Study of Crack-Cocaine Users. In: Qualitative Methods in Drugs Research. Tim Rhodes, editor.

In Press

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, and Russel S. Falck. Outreach Strategies. In: Substance Abuse Treatment in the Era of AIDS. Barry Brown, ed.

2006

Sexton, Rocky L., Robert G. Carlson, Carl G. Leukefeld, and Brenda M. Booth. Patterns of Illicit Methamphetamine Production ("Cooking") and Associated Risks in the Rural South: An Ethnographic Exploration. Journal of Drug Issues 36(4):853-876.

2006

Redko, Christina, Richard C. Rapp, and Robert G. Carlson. Waiting Time as a Barrier to Treatment Entry: Perceptions of Substance Users. Journal of Drug Issues 36(4):831-852.

2006

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Robert G. Carlson, and Deric Kenne. Initiation to pharmaceutical opioids and patterns of misuse: Preliminary qualitative findings obtained by the Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network. Journal of Drug Issues (36)4:787-808.

2006

Sexton, Rocky L., Robert G. Carlson, Brenda Booth, Harvey A. Siegal, and Carl Leukefeld. The Role of African-American Clergy in Providing Informal Services to Drug Users in the Rural South: Preliminary Ethnographic Findings. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 5(1):1-21.

2006

Falck, Russel, Linna Li, Robert G. Carlson, and Jichuan Wang. The Prevalence of Dextromethorphan Abuse among High School Students. Pediatrics 118:2267-2269.

2006

Draus, Paul and Robert G. Carlson. Needles in the Haystacks: The Social Context of Initiation to Heroin Injection in Rural Ohio. Substance Use and Misuse 41:1111-1124.

2006

Booth, Brenda M., Carl Leukefeld, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Correlates of Rural Methamphetamine and Cocaine Users: Results from a Multistate Community Study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 67(4):493-501.

2006

Rapp, Richard C., Jiangmin Xu, Carey A. Carr, Tim Lane, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Treatment Barriers Identified by Substance Abusers Assessed at a Centralized Intake Unit. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 30(3):227-235.

2006

Falck, Russel S., Robert G. Carlson, Jichuan Wang & Harvey A. Siegal. The Prevalence and Correlates of Selected Psychiatric Disorders among Young Adult MDMA/ëEcstasyí Users in Ohio. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 38(1):19-29.

2006

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, and Kristen P. Massimino. Emergency Department Utilization by Crack-Cocaine Smokers in Dayton, Ohio. The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 32:55-68.

2006

Siegal, Harvey A., Paul J. Draus, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, and Jichuan Wang. Perspectives on Health among Adult Users of Illicit Stimulant Drugs in Rural Ohio. Journal of Rural Health 22(2):169-173.

2005

Carlson, Robert G., Jichuan Wang, Russel S. Falck, and Harvey A. Siegal. Drug use Practices among MDMA/Ecstasy Users in Ohio: A Latent Class Analysis. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 79:167-179.

2005

Falck, Russel S., Harvey A. Siegal, Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, and Paul J. Draus. Non-Medical Drug Use among Adults in Small Towns in Rural Ohio. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 28(5): 341-349.

2005

Sexton, Rocky L., Robert G. Carlson, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck, Brenda Booth, and Carl Leukefeld. Barriers and Pathways to Diffusion of Methamphetamine Use Among African Americans in the Rural South: Preliminary Ethnographic Findings. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse 4(1):77-103.

2005

Wang, Jichuan, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, Harvey A. Siegal, Ahmmed Rahman, and Linna Li. Sample Analysis of Young Adult MDMA/Ecstasy Users Recruited with Respondent Driven Sampling. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 78:147-157.

2005

Carlson, Robert G. International Approaches to Drug Prevention: The Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network. Drug Prevention 2 (April): 14-15.

2005

Draus, Paul, Harvey A. Siegal, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, and Jichuan Wang. Cracking the Cornfields: Recruiting Illicit Stimulant Drug Users in Rural Ohio. The Sociological Quarterly 46:165-189.

2005

McCaughan, Jill, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, and Harvey A. Siegal. From ìCandy Kidsî to ìChemi-Kidsî: A Typology of Young Adults Who Attend Raves in the Midwest and Implications for Drug Prevention. Substance Use and Misuse 40(9/10):1503-1523.

2004

Carlson, Robert G., Russel S. Falck, Jill A. McCaughan, and Harvey A. Siegal. MDMA/îEcstasyî Use among Young People in Ohio: Perceived Risk and Barriers to Intervention. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 36(2):181-189.

2004

Carlson, Robert G., Jill A McCaughan, Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, and Raminta Daniulaityte. Perceived Adverse Consequences Associated with MDMA/Ecstasy Use among Young Polydrug Users in Ohio: Implications for Intervention. International Journal of Drug Policy 15(4):265-274.

2004

Falck, Russel S., Robert G. Carlson, Jichuan Wang, and Harvey A. Siegal. Sources of Information about MDMA (3,4 - methylenedioxymethamphetamine): Perceived Accuracy, Importance, and Implications for Prevention among Young Adult Users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 74:45-54.

2004

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, and Robert G. Carlson. The Prevalence of Psychiatric Disorder among a Community Sample of Crack Cocaine Users: An Exploratory Study with Practical Implications. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 192(7):503-507.

2004

Daniulaityte, Raminta, Siegal, Harvey A., Carlson, Robert G., Kenne, Deric R., Starr, Sanford, and DeCamp, Brad. Qualitative Epidemiologic Methods Can Improve Local Prevention Programming among Adolescents. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 48(2):73-83.

2003

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Deric R. Kenne, and Raminta Daniulaityte. Reply to Gunderson, Erik W. No Data to Show Link Between Opioid Abuse and Heroin Use. American Family Physician 68:2132-2134.

2003

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Deric R. Kenne,and Maria Swora. Probable Relationship Between Opioid Abuse and Heroin Use. American Family Physician 67(5): 943-944.

2003

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, and Robert G. Carlson. Current Physical Health Problems and their Predictors among a Community Sample of Crack- Cocaine Smokers in Ohio. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 35(4):471-478.

2002

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, Mark Eddy, and Harvey A. Siegal. The Prevalence and Correlates of Depressive Symptomatology Among a Community Sample of Crack-Cocaine Smokers. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 34(3):281-288.

2002

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Predictors of Drug Abuse Treatment Entry among Crack-Cocaine Smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 68:159-166.

2002

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, and Harvey A. Siegal. Variability in Drug Use Prevalence Across School Districts in the Same Locale in Ohio. Journal of School Health 72(7):288-293.

2001

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, and Harvey A. Siegal. The Epidemiology of Physical Attack and Rape among Crack-Using Women. Violence and Victims 16(1):79-89.

2001

Wang, Jichuan, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck, and Robert G. Carlson. Factorial Structure of Rosenberg =s Self-Esteem Scale Among Crack-Cocaine Drug Users. Structural Equation Modeling 8(2):275-286.

2001

Siegal, Harvey A. D. Timothy Lane, Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, Ahmmed Rahman, and Deborah T. Chambers. Constructing a Consensus-Based Prevention Outcome Measurement Instrument. Journal of Drug Education 31(3):139-152.

2001

Deren, S. Stark, M., Rhodes, F., Siegal, H., Cottler, L., Wood, M.M., Kochems, L.M., Carlson, R.G., Falck, R.S., Rourke, K.M., Trotter, R.T., Weir, B., Goldstein, M.F., & Wright-DeAguero, L. Drug-Using Men who Have Sex with Men: Sexual Behaviors and Sexual Identities. Culture, Health and Sexuality 3:(3):329-338.

2001

Wang, Jichuan, Baofa Jiang, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck & Robert G. Carlson. Sexual Behavior and Condom Use among STD Patients in Jinan, China. (Letter) American Journal of Public Health 91(4):650-651.

2001

Wang, Jichuan, Baofa Jiang, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck & Robert G. Carlson. Level of AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Practices among Sexually Transmitted Disease Patients in China. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 28(3):171-175.

2000

Carlson, Robert G.. Shooting Galleries, Dope Houses, and ADoctors: @ Examining the Social Ecology of HIV Risk Behaviors Among Drug Injectors in Dayton, Ohio. Human Organization 59(3):325-333.

2000

Carlson, Robert G., Russel S. Falck, and Harvey A. Siegal. Crack-Cocaine Injection in the Heartland: An Ethnographic Perspective. Medical Anthropology 18:305-323.

2000

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Deric R. Kenne, Sanford Starr, and Richard Stephens. The Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network: Constructing and Operating a Statewide Epidemiologic Intelligence System. American Journal of Public Health 90(12):1835-1837.

2000

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Crack-Cocaine Users as Victims of Physical Attack. Journal of the National Medical Association 92:76-82.

2000

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, and Robert G. Carlson. Longitudinal Application of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey With Not-in-Treatment Crack-Cocaine Users. Medical Care 38:902-910.

2000

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, and Harvey A. Siegal. Crack-Cocaine Use and Health Status as defined by the SF-36. Addictive Behaviors 25(4):579-584.

1999

Carlson, Robert G. "Boy" and "Girl": The AIDS Risk Implications of Heroin and Cocaine Symbolism among Injection Drug Users. Anthropology and Medicine 6(1):59-77.

1999

Carlson, Robert G., Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, and Ahmmed Rahman. HIV Needle Risk Behaviors and Drug Use: A Comparison of Crack-Smoking and Non-Crack Smoking Drug Users in Ohio. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 31(3):291-297.

1999

Falck, Russel S., Harvey A. Siegal, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Differences in Drug Use Among Rural and Suburban High School Students in Ohio. Substance Use and Misuse 34:567-577.

1999

Siegal, Harvey A., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, and Robert L. Fine. Ohio=s Prison-Based Therapeutic Community Treatment Programs for Substance Abusers: Preliminary Analysis of Re-Arrest Data. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation 28(3/4):33-48.

1999

Rhodes, Fen, Sherry Deren, Michele M. Wood, Michele G. Shedlin, Robert G. Carlson, Elizabeth Y. Lambert, Lee M. Kochems, Michael J. Stark, Russel S. Falck, Linda Wright-DeAg?ero, Brian Weir, Linda Cottler, Kathryn M. Rourke, and Robert T. Trotter II. Understanding HIV Risks of Chronic Drug-Using Men Who Have Sex with Men. AIDS CARE 11(6):629-648.

1999

Wang, Jichuan, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, and Ahmmed Rahman. Evaluation of HIV Risk-Reduction Intervention Programs Via Latent Growth Model. Evaluation Review 23:648-662.

1998

Carlson, Robert G., Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, and Russel S. Falck. A Preliminary Evaluation of a Modified Needle-Cleaning Intervention Using Bleach among Injection Drug Users. AIDS Education and Prevention 10(6):523-532.

1998

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, Jichuan Wang, and Ahmmed M. Rahman. Health Services Research Among Crack-Cocaine Users: A Case Study From the Midwest. American Behavioral Scientist 41(8):1063-1078.

1998

Wang, Jichuan, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck, and Robert G. Carlson. Needle Transfer Among Injection Drug Users: A Multilevel Analysis. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 24(2):225-237.

1997

Falck, Russel S., Jichuan Wang, Robert G. Carlson, and Harvey A. Siegal. Factors Influencing Condom Use Among Heterosexual Users of Injection Drugs and Crack Cocaine. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 24(4):204-210.

1996

Carlson, Robert G. The Political Economy of AIDS among Drug Users in the United States: Beyond Blaming the Victim or Powerful Others. American Anthropologist 98(2):266-278.

1996

Carlson, Robert G., Harvey A. Siegal, Jichuan Wang, and Russel S. Falck. Attitudes Toward Needle "Sharing" among Injection Drug Users: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods. Human Organization 55(3):361-369.

1996

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. History of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Infection, Drug-Sex Behaviors, and the Use of Condoms Among Midwestern Users of Injection Drugs and Crack Cocaine. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 23(4):277-282.

1995

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, and Jichuan Wang. Drug Abuse Treatment Experience and HIV Risk Behaviors among Active Drug Injectors in Ohio. American Journal of Public Health 85(1):105-108.

1995

Ashery, Rebecca Sager, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, and Harvey A. Siegal. Injection Drug Users, Crack-Cocaine Users, and Human Service Utilization: An Exploratory Study. Social Work 40:75-82.

1995

Ashery, Rebecca Sager, Robert G. Carlson, Russel S. Falck, Harvey A. Siegal, and Jichuan Wang. Female Condom Use among Injection Drug- and Crack Cocaine-Using Women. [letter] American Journal of Public Health 85:736-737.

1995

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, and Jichuan Wang. Reducing HIV Needle Risk Behaviors among Injection-Drug Users in the Midwest: An Evaluation of the Efficacy of Standard and Enhanced Interventions. AIDS Education and Prevention 7(4):308-319.

1995

Falck, Russel S., Rebecca Sager Ashery, Robert G. Carlson, Jichuan Wang, and Harvey A. Siegal. Injection Drug Users, Crack Smokers, and the Use of Human Services. Social Work Research 19(3):164-173.

1995

Wang, Jichuan, James H. Fisher, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck, and Robert G. Carlson. Influence of Measurement Errors on HIV Risk Behavior Analysis: A Case Study Examining Condom Use among Drug Users. Structural Equation Modeling 2(4):319-334.

1995

Falck, Russel, Harvey A. Siegal, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. Usefulness of the Health Belief Model in Predicting HIV Needle Risk Practices among Injection Drug Users. AIDS Education and Prevention 7(6):523-533.

1994

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Jichuan Wang. Injection Drug Users' Needle-Cleaning Practices [letter]. American Journal of Public Health 84(9):1523-1524.

1994

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Jichuan Wang, Russel S. Falck, Richard C. Stephens, and E. Don Nelson. Injection Drug Users in the Midwest: An Epidemiologic Comparison of Drug Use Patterns in Four Ohio Cities. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 26(3):265-275.

1994

Carlson, Robert G., Jichuan Wang, Harvey A. Siegal, Russel S. Falck, and Jie Guo. An Ethnographic Approach to Targeted Sampling: Problems and Solutions in AIDS Prevention Research Among Injection Drug and Crack-Cocaine Users. Human Organization 53(3):279-286.

1994

Falck, Russel, Robert G. Carlson, Sandra K. Price, and Jennifer A. Turner. Case Management to Enhance HIV Risk Reduction Among Users of Injection Drugs and Crack Cocaine. Journal of Case Management 3(4):162-166.

1994

Siegal, Harvey A., Jichuan Wang, Mary Ann Forney, Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, and Duane C. McBride. Incarceration and HIV Risk Behaviors among Injection Drug Users: A Midwestern Case Study. Journal of Crime and Justice 17(1):85-101.

1993

Carlson, Robert G. Hierarchy and the Haya Divine Kingship: A Structural and Symbolic Reformulation of Frazer's Thesis. American Ethnologist 20(2):312-335.

1993

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Robert D. Reece, and Terry Perlin. Conducting HIV Outreach and Research Among Incarcerated Drug Abusers: A Case Study of Ethical Concerns and Dilemmas. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment 10:71-75.

1992

Carlson, Robert G. Symbolic Mediation and Commoditization: A Critical Examination of Alcohol Use among the Haya of Bukoba, Tanzania. Medical Anthropology 15:41-62.

1992

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Mary Ann Forney, Jichuan Wang, and Ling Li. High-Risk Behaviors for Transmission of Syphilis and HIV Among Crack Cocaine Using Women: A Case Study from the Midwest. Sexually Transmitted Diseases 19(5):266-271.

1992

Falck, Russel, Harvey A. Siegal, Mary Ann Forney, Jichuan Wang, and Robert G. Carlson. The Validity of Injection Drug Users Self-Reported Use of Opiates and Cocaine. The Journal of Drug Issues 22(4):823-832.

1991

Carlson, Robert G., and Harvey A. Siegal. The Crack Life: An Ethnographic Overview of Crack Use and Sexual Behavior among African Americans in a Midwest Metropolitan City. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 23(1):11-20.

1991

Carlson, Robert G., Richard Rapp, Russel Falck, Kathy Baumgartner, and Harvey A. Siegal. Outreach Workers Reflect on Two Years of Experience. Network 2(2):10-13.

1991

Siegal, Harvey A., Robert G. Carlson, Russel Falck, Ling Li, Mary Ann Forney, Richard C. Rapp, Kathy Baumgartner, William Myers, and Morton Nelson. HIV Infection and Risk Behaviors among Intravenous Drug Users in Low Seroprevalence Areas in the Midwest. American Journal of Public Health 81:1642-1644.

1991

Siegal, Harvey A., Russel S. Falck, Robert G. Carlson, and Ling Li. Changes in Needle Risk Behaviors: A Preliminary Comparative Analysis of the Dayton-Columbus NADR Program's Standard and Enhanced Intervention Tracks at Six Months. Research in Progress October:12-16.

1990

Carlson, Robert G. Banana Beer, Reciprocity, and Ancestor Propitiation among the Haya of Bukoba, Tanzania. Ethnology 29(4):297-311.